How solar panels are made


For each solar panel, there is a pair of silicon wafers […]

For each solar panel, there is a pair of silicon wafers that you cut. You treat a wafer with chemicals to make it a negative semiconductor. This means that you have deposited another element on the semiconductor with an excess of electrons per atom. Silicon has 4 electrons, so phosphorus is usually "doped" into the wafer because each phosphorus atom has 5 electrons. The electron is negatively charged. This makes the wafer an n (negative) wafer.

You treated the other wafer of the pair similarly, doping it with a different element that has an element that is "lost" by electrons, such as boron. This is a p (positive) wafer.

You connect two wafers together. This creates an electric field between them, and electrons jump from the n-layer to the p-layer. When the sun hits the cell, it excites these electrons, which want to jump in and out of the gap between the cells.

After setting, you need to cut it into thin slices. The thinner the cut, the more flexible the solar panel. If the silicon wafer is cut thin enough, a rolled solar cell panel can be produced. But I assume you want to make a traditional frame solar panel.

The most important and expensive part of a solar panel is a semiconductor used to capture sunlight and move electrons. These have always been silicon. You need to get some silicon (actually beach sand) and you have to heat it until it melts. You then need to cool it to form a long, large silicon crystal. This is difficult to do, impurities and defects often occur, and silicon cannot be used.

Doped silicon is a semiconductor. This means that it is not a good conductor. If a very good conductor is put into the wafer gap, the electrons will jump on it to reach the p wafer or leave the n wafer. This movement of electrons in the wire can be used to do work-electricity!

You now need to connect many or many of these batteries in parallel or series depending on the amount of voltage or current you need. You need to install the battery where it cannot be deformed and cracked. You need a frame to mount them on. Cover the glass to prevent hail or other objects from hitting the battery.